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Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema

COW Library : Cinematography : Debra Kaufman : Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
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CreativeCOW presents Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema -- Cinematography Editorial


Santa Monica California USA

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As a landmark in American film history celebrates 35 years, Sony Pictures Entertainment leads a cutting-edge 4K restoration for Blu-ray and limited theatrical re-release. Debra Kaufman joins the COW team with an exclusive in-depth article describing the restoration of Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema for its 35th anniversary.



Grover Crisp, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Senior Vice President of Asset Management, Film Restoration and Digital Mastering
Grover Crisp
Sony Pictures Entertainment
Senior Vice President of Asset Management, Film Restoration and Digital Mastering
At the Director's Guild of America Theater in New York, Taxi Driver debuted 35 years after its February 8, 1976 premiere. Except this Taxi Driver has been painstakingly digitally restored and re-mastered to 4K, for a limited 4K theatrical release and for Blu-ray. Director Martin Scorsese and cinematographer Michael Chapman, A.S.C. played an active role in overseeing the Sony Pictures Entertainment restoration, which was spearheaded by Grover Crisp, SPE senior vice president of asset management, film restoration and digital mastering, who had also overseen the 4K restoration of Bridge Over the River Kwai.

The idea for a 4K restoration arose when the studio began to prepare for a Blu-ray release. "We already knew the older HD transfer would not hold up," says Crisp. "This is an important film in the Columbia Pictures library, so we felt it deserved the highest level of work."

The workflow was simplified by the fact that Colorworks, a DI facility on the Sony lot in Culver City, was built from the ground-up with a complete 4K infrastructure including color grading systems Baselight 8 and 4 from FilmLight. The facility and its 4K capabilities have been integral to Sony's re-mastering and restoration work.

"For some time, we have been scanning everything that we work on at 4K, regardless of whether it is a big restoration project or if we just need to re-master the film for Blu-ray," says Crisp. "The 4K is essentially the resolution of 35mm film negative, but even when scanning second or third generation elements, we still start with a 4K scan."

Prior to the restoration, the original negative had been stored in a state-of-the-art vaulting facility, cold and humidity-controlled to IPI specs. "For a film of this vintage, the negative was in average condition," says Crisp. "It had some torn sections, which fortunately had not been replaced at any time, and numerous scratches, plus the usual amount of dirt embedded in the emulsion. It was slightly faded but not so much that we couldn't bring the color back in digitally." Colorworks DI artist Scott Ostrowsky agrees with the assessment. "Besides the dirt, tears and scratches, there was a little bit of color fading and a little bit of color breathing," he notes.

The ONEG (original negative) was scanned at Cineric, a restoration and preservation facility in New York using a specially designed wetgate 4K scanner. The resulting DPX files exist on the SAN, but they were moved across the country to Colorworks on LTO data tape. "4K is a lot of data to move around and to hold on servers," explains Crisp. "But we have not encountered any problems in moving data in and out."



One of the 4K DI suites at Colorworks, located on the Sony lot in Culver City, California.
One of the 4K DI suites at Colorworks, located on the Sony lot in Culver City, California.


COLOR GRADING THE RESTORED "TAXI DRIVER"

For those worried that the digitally re-mastered Taxi Driver will deviate from the look of the original, nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, for fans familiar with Taxi Driver from videocassette or DVD versions, the new version is likely to be a revelation… and a return to the film's original look. "There are a number of places in the film that will look quite different from other video releases," says Crisp.


"From left, Billie Perkins, Jodie Foster and DeNiro. Taxi Driver" Restoration (Sony Pictures)
From left, Billie Perkins, Jodie Foster and DeNiro.


"We discovered in looking at answer prints and working with Chapman that the last time the film was transferred was about ten years ago, unsupervised and with no talent involvement," he adds. "The old transfer, used for the DVDs over the years, really missed the boat in a number of ways. It was too bright in places and some scenes were just wrong. There was a preponderance of cyan throughout a number of scenes. Also, the framing was unfortunately not accurate, with some key shots zoomed in to avoid issues related to splices and we properly framed those scenes."

Colorworks DI artist Scott Ostrowsky, who had worked on an earlier HD master of the title, says that working with the original negative was both "a blessing and a curse." "It gives you the best possible palette to work with," he says. "But there's no timing with the ONEG -- you're creating that." The basis for his color correction was an approved answer print, which he saw prior to starting color correction. "I took notes and matched to it as closely as possible," he says.


"Taxi Driver" Restoration (Sony Pictures)
Robert DeNiro, new attitude intact, in a scene from 'Taxi Driver'.


Ostrowsky's color correction unearthed other problems that had arisen, including timing issues and optical dissolves. "In a photochemical print, you don't have as much leeway if, for example, they used a B stock at some point," he says. "The entire end scene, coming out of the killings, is all dissolves. It's almost like a montage where it goes from Travis Bickle to the streets, to the police, to the apartment. Going from the ONEG helps you balance that out better."

He notes that the entire last scene in the apartment was an optical. "When they showed the film to the ratings board originally, it got an X rating because of all the blood in that scene," says Ostrowsky. "They went to a lab that did a Chemtone process that gave it a desaturated look." Although today's films don't shy away from showing blood, the 4K version of Taxi Driver features that same desaturation. "We kept it the same," says Ostrowsky. "Michael [Chapman] did not want to change it and we kept true to what the print looked like."


Leonard Harris as Charles Palantine in Martin Scorsese's 'Taxi Driver'. 'Taxi Driver' Restoration (Sony Pictures)
Leonard Harris as Charles Palantine in Martin Scorsese's "Taxi Driver".


Colorworks uses FilmLight's Baselight 8 and Baselight 4 for its color grading; Ostrowsky used the Baselight 8 for Taxi Driver. "It gives the colorist a wide array of choices and we can even do some cleanup on the fly," says Crisp. The Baselight 8 contains 98 terabytes of internal storage, making it the ideal tool for color correcting in 4K.

"The processing powers of the Baselight 8 and Baselight 4 are essentially the same, but because of the greater storage, the 8 is a little faster," says Ostrowsky. "With the Baselight 8, I can do numerous keys and windows on images with many layers and it doesn't slow down at all." Ostrowsky also notes that the Baselight 8 offers a robust toolset. "It has printer lights, its own set of secondaries and a hue-angle layer," he says. "It has keyers and windows…everything you could possibly want."


The Baselight 8 nonlinear color grading system from FilmLight. Dedicated hardware, including 96TB of internal storage, allows realtime playback and grading of multiple streams of 4K.
The Baselight 8 nonlinear color grading system from Filmlight. Dedicated hardware, including 96TB of internal storage, allows realtime playback and grading of multiple streams of 4K.


When the color correction got to a certain point, cinematographer Michael Chapman came in. "I worked with Scott to get it to a point where we could have Michael come in and be close enough that he could weigh-in more efficiently for his time," says Crisp. "We were pretty close, but he made a few changes here and there, mostly density and a bit of color and that was it."

Scorsese saw the 4K files after the initial pass for digital restoration while he was in London shooting Hugo Cabret. "He came into the Sony Pictures screening room which is one of the few places in London where you can see 4K," says Crisp. "He had some comments on framing and color, all good points, which we addressed back at Colorworks."


The "Taxi Driver" 4K restoration was done by the same team responsible for the Sony Pictures Entertainment Bluray release of "Bridge on the River Kwai," also released from the restored 4K masters. Above: Alec Guinness.
The "Taxi Driver" 4K restoration was done by the same team responsible for the Sony Pictures Entertainment Bluray release of "Bridge on the River Kwai," also released from the restored 4K masters. Above: Alec Guinness.



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Re: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Danny Hays
Very nice. A few posts here have asked what you playback 4K with. I'm curios too. I work at Universal Orlando resort in the Show Systems department, taking care of all the audio, video, laser and film in the theme park attractions. We have a venue that has 4K 60p video, and we use a DVS 4K server, I can't get into details on it, but what else can playback 4K?

Re: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Chris Borjis
[Danny Hays] "but what else can playback 4K?"

Red Ray.

Re: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Mike Most
If it were available. At this point in time, it's not. There has also been no confirmation that it will handle 4K from anything other than Red's own codec. DCP compatibility has been hinted at, but to my knowledge not officially confirmed.
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Glen Stork
Debra,
Terrific work. Got to the end and noticed your photo needed a bit of contrast. I adjusted it and want to send it to you. Take care.
Duane
Duane Stork Photography
http://www.DStork.com
404.314.2808
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Tim Wilson
It was only a brief mention in the article, but I jumped at the news that Bernard Herrmann's amazing score has been remastered from the original 4-channel stereo tapes. He passed away just weeks before Taxi Driver opened, and the film is dedicated to his memory.

I don't think it's possible to overstate how important Herrmann's score is to making this picture such an overwhelming experience, every bit the equal of Michael Chapman's cinematography and even Paul Schrader's script. (Which I say respectfully to both of these gentlemen, whose work is truly for the ages.)

One of my favorite features of the Criterion laserdisc release of Taxi Driver is that you could listen to just the audio track in the analog mix (in the right channel, with dialog/fx panned left). A heartstopping, heartbreaking experience that I would love to be available in Blu-ray.

For now, two YouTube clips, in reverse order from how they play in the movie. This first one is coming straight out of the credits, and a perfect example of how Scorsese holds every element - the cinematography, the script, the performance, and the music - in perfect balance.



(And yeah, having said what I did about the score, you can see even from this crappy YouTube clip why remastering Chapman's gorgeous imagery is such a big big deal.)

This second clip, which as I mention, actually precedes the previous one in the movie, is the opening title sequence, which lays out the musical themes used throughout the movie:



A bit off-topic, but any film fan should dig into Herrmann's work. His most famous score was Psycho (which used only strings!!). Indeed, he did many of Hitchcock's signature pieces from the mid-50s to the mid-60s, including Vertigo, another pinnacle in my book. Also: Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons, the 1962 version of Cape Fear, and many, many more, including the TV show, The Twilight Zone.

Back to the Taxi Driver restoration, I can see why David Lean epics like Lawrence of Arabia and Bridge on the River Kwai (can you believe he did those pictures back to back?) were first in line to set the benchmarks for the science of restoration that they did.

This is heresy, and it's inconceivable to me that Mr. Scorsese would agree with me, but this is film is every bit their equal, and, among these three, the restoration that excites me most. And maybe not fair since I've already seen the other two remarkable, remarkable restorations, but I can't wait to see this "new" Taxi Driver.

In any case, a fantastic article, Debra. Thanks so much!
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Robert Houllahan
I just don't know I would have left the dirt in the picture, the 1970's from all accounts were a pretty dirty time and the trailer seems too clean to me. I think that the current trend towards the hyper clean (i.e. MTI's cleaning dirt "invisible" to the human eye) will be seen in the future as a mistake. I agree with fixing some of the problems and restoring the color but the lack of dirt kind of changes it for me.

Just my opinion... but you know what they say about people who are over obsessed with dirt....

-Rob-

Robert Houllahan
Director / Colorist
Cinelab Inc.
http://www.cinelab.com

MAHC-PRO 6-Core 3X GTX285 20Tb SAS Wave Panel Panny 11UK SDI Plasma.
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Tim Wilson
[Robert Houllahan] ", the 1970's from all accounts were a pretty dirty time and the trailer seems too clean to me"

An interesting point, Robert, and I think that people are going to be debating this for a long time as we see more and more restorations.

Here's my thinking: I don't know that there's a more meticulous filmmaker than Scorsese, and I'm positive that when he sat in the screening room that that original print had not a speck on it. The problem was just that by the time these prints made their way through a million nasty sprockets on their way to the fastest possible transfer to TV and the first rounds of home media - they looked pretty bad.

But not always. Even though it was through component video, my Criterion edition of Taxi Driver looked amazing, in some ways superior to the first DVD pressing I saw.

And as I mentioned, looking at those opening frames of Michael Chapman, before DeNiro even started speaking, I want to see those pictures as big and as pure as he and Martin did in 1976. In my mind, there's no excuse NOT to, even if it differs from the way I saw it in the theater.

Now if it was a different cut of the movie, we'd be having a whole 'nother conversation. :-)

Having said that, I appreciate that they made every effort not to over-fix it. I have read Chapman saying elsewhere that desaturating the blood to get an R instead of an X was one of his great regrets -- but I think that leaving the picture desaturated in the remaster was the right thing to do. Otherwise, they really do start to get into re-DOING the movie. I'm glad that Scorsese and Chapman's commitment to authenticity outweighed their desire to do better now than they could possibly have done then. The goal was to make it the best-looking 1976 feature that they possibly could. I can't wait.

Hey, and how much differently did they make trailers back then? Pretty remarkable, and a great conversation on its own for another time and place.
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Robert Houllahan
I actually think that the original prints in the 70's had quite a bit of dirt in them. The article even says that there was quite a bit of dirt stuck in the emulsion of the camera negative. When there is dirt and dust stuck in the emulsion this has usually happened in the dry box in the film processor and gets 'baked' in as the emulsion goes from being wet and expanded as it enters the dry box to being dry and tightened up as it leaves the film processor and is wound on the take-up flange.

As someone who regularly physically works with original film I can tell you that older films were not processed in clean rooms with the attention to detail we have today. Film processors in the 1970's did not have the HEPA filters we have on our machines now, nor were there the kind of forced clean air systems made for 'clean' room enviornments.

Furthermore the optical sequences had to be made with many passes on an optical printer and this was before 'star wars' and the advances in optical printing that happened in California at ILM and other downshooting shops. I think the optical house in NYC probably was not at the forefront of using newer optics and other techniques which help to keep the originals clean and scratch free after multiple passes through a optical printer.

I just think over cleaning the dirt takes away from the look of work from that era. Also I kind of like a little dirt in my films I find it humanizing.

-Rob-

Robert Houllahan
Director / Colorist
Cinelab Inc.
http://www.cinelab.com

MAHC-PRO 6-Core 3X GTX285 20Tb SAS Wave Panel Panny 11UK SDI Plasma.
+1
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Jonathan Goeldner
@ Gunnar Refardt:
the presentation at Berlinale was supposed to be 4K DLP, but according to what I read online, there were technical problems and the ultimate image was downrezzed to 2K. Next week's presentation though is a Sony LCoS (liquid crystal on silicone) exclusive 4K presentation, no DLP screenings as there are no 4K DLP projectors readily available - so far the only screen outfitted as such is the Seattle Cinerama which has a Christie Solaria 4K DLP unit. [The first 4K DLP commercial release incidently is 'Battle: Los Angeles' playing in one theater in Ontario Canada] I really hope with the release of 'Taxi Driver' more studios will see this as an opportunity to present their restorations on the big screen in the best possible presentation... say like Sony's next 4K restoration 'The Guns of Navarone'
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Debra Kaufman
Hi Tami - Please friend me on Facebook or Linked In and then you can send me a message. Thanks, Debra K
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Tami Lynn
Welcome Debra,
Would you please contact me.
Thank you,
Tami Lynn, Producer/writer
818-804-8264 cell
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Deyson Ortiz
Hello Debra.

I would like to send my gratitude for taking the time to write such a beautiful story. I have not seen the trailer to Taxi Driver before and it is simply beautiful. I love it!

Thank you and have a wonderful day.
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Ralph Hajik
Debra Kaufman,

I watched the trailer and love it. Excellant job.

Ralph Hajik

Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Mike Cohen
Are you mooing at me? I don't see any other cows so you must be mooing at me.

Debra welcome to the herd. Fascinating article. It is amazing they can rebuild a film after 25 years.

Now if only there were a way to scan my old umatic tapes in 4k...or even 1k!

Mike Cohen
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Mark Suszko
So the "all-red" scene is still all red?
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Nora Williams
I hadn't heard a peep about this, Debra. Great story. I can't wait to see the results.
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Debra Kaufman
Hi Dave - Nice to see you here! The reason the restoration took place in LA is because it is a Columbia Picture, i.e., Sony Pictures film - Sony has its own 4K DI facility, Colorworks and Grover Crisp who produced the restoration is also in the LA office. Debra
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Dave Pickett
Nice one Debra. I look forward to reading more of your work on the Cow. Regarding minute dust removal it's always an interesting proposition to work on elements of a picture that the human eye cant see. But I am glad that Larry's company is continuing to trail blaze. Also surprised that the lion's share of this restoration took place in LA with Scorsese's affinity for NY. Any reason for that in particular?
Take care,

Dave
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Debra Kaufman
Thanks, Ron - I am eager to contribute to COW and develop a body of work on the site!

Rafael - Yes, most people won't be able to see the 4K version but soon most movie theaters will be digital and eventually 4K. So put it on your wish list for the near future!
best, Debra K
Re: Debra Kaufman: Restoring Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver in Sony 4K Digital Cinema
by Rafael Amador
Great article Debra.
Amazing job and process to refresh a master piece.
No dream with watch it at 4K, but I hope at least on BR.
rafael

http://www.nagavideo.com
Re: Taxi Driver in 4K
by Gunnar Refardt
I already saw the rostored version @ the berlinale and it's awesome…great job! and a real treat to watch it on the big screen.
@Gunnar Refardt
by Gunnar Refardt
rEstored… of course.
Re: Taxi Driver in 4K
by Ronald Lindeboom
Hi Debra,

I just had to sneak in here before this article link goes live to the public and tell you we couldn't be more proud to have you as a part of Creative COW. Articles like these, written in the way that only you can do them, is the reason that we wanted you as a part of the COW.

It truly is an honor to have you as a part of the COW Team, Debra. We look forward to many great years ahead working with you.

Ronald Lindeboom
CEO, Creative COW LLC


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